In this comprehensive review of breast feeding and breast milk by a physician and new mom, Dr. Asquith opens by discussing why breast feeding benefits both babies and their mothers. She relates the common reasons why some moms elect not to breast feed or stop breast feeding early. Dr. Asquith then shares data on the epidemiology of breast feeding by across the country. Next, she mentions the typical schedule for a breast feeding mom and essential care steps to ensure proper hygiene for breast feeding equipment. Dr. Asquith then dives deeper into some of the immunological and anti-infective benefits of nursing. She then shares information on the safety of nursing when a mom is sick with infectious syndromes like the Flu, travelers diarrhea, HSV and Zika virus. She closes by touching on milk banking and human milk pasteurization.
Dr. Klinkova reviews the general types of biologic agents available for patients today and their classification system. She focuses specifically on Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors. Dr. Klinkova extensively reviews their noninfectious and infectious adverse effects. Among the infectious complications, mycobacterial disease is among the most significant, and she reviews risk factors, screening, and prevention. Lastly, Dr. Klinkova reviews bacterial and viral complications of TNF agents, and closes by mentioning anti-integrin and anti-IL 12/23 agents.
Dr. Garcia takes a close look at how large animal bites of can cause significant morbidity to human victims. She first reviews exposures due to large cats, including lions and tigers. She then discusses bites due to bears. Next, she discusses exposures due to reptiles, including venomous snakes. She emphasizes the knowledge and tools that infectious diseases specialists and patients need to know to prevent exposures and to treat them after they occur.
Dr. Gllava reviews the value of the procalcitonin laboratory test as an inflammatory marker useful in making treatment decisions in infectious diseases patients. First, she introduces the idea of a biomarker: a laboratory assay that is useful in detecting inflammatory states. She then explains the advantages and disadvantages of procalcitonin as an ideal biomarker. Dr. Gllava goes on to describe the current recommendations for the use of procalcitonin in specific infectious conditions and reviews the body of scientific evidence for its use. Lastly, she reviews how hospitals can utilize procalcitonin-based algorithms to improve clinical care and promote antimicrobial stewardship.
Dr. Moore Pardo’s comprehensive timeline of HIV and AIDS spans the last 40 years of the history of HIV infection. She covers the important decade of the 1980’s, when the epidemic was first recognized, the virus identified, and public awareness of the syndrome was heightened by the deaths of celebrities such as Rock Hudson. She then discusses drug development and the age of HAART in the 1990s. The decade of the 2000s focused upon access to care and curbing the epidemic on an international scale with programs like PEPFAR and private philanthropy initiatives. She closes by looking at where we are in the HIV epidemic over the last decade as the medical community begins to discuss a possible end to new cases of HIV in the US by 2030.
Dr. Klinkova reviews CSF device-associated infections, an important potential source of morbidity for neurosurgical patients. She first discusses risk factors, and then transitions to discuss the pathogenesis and microbiology of shunt infections. Next, she reviews the typical clinical presentation of patients who present with the syndrome, and then discusses diagnostic pearls for identifying patients with CSF device infections. She then reviews the management of these patients including the principles of antibiotic selection. Lastly, Dr. Klinkova covers CSF device-associated infection prophylaxis.
Dr. Sandin provides a general overview of identification techniques for Mycobacterial organisms. He discusses and outlines classification systems for the Mycobacteria that are human pathogens. He then discusses laboratory stains that are useful in identifying Mycobacteria and reviews other diagnostic methods which have become essential to Mycobacterial species identification, including the various nucleic amplification-based methods. Various pathology pearls of Mycobacterial identification are also mentioned. Lastly, he discusses two clinical cases involving acid fast organisms.
Dr. Oehler conducts a lively quiz session regarding infectious diseases historical figures and events dating from 600 BC to 1900. In this fast paced and humorous podcast, listeners are exposed to the accomplishments of infectious disease titans such as Hippocrates, Anton Van Leewenhoek, Ignaz Semmelweis, and John Snow. After listening to this podcast, participants will have a much broader sense of the legacy of infectious diseases history as well as some other fascinating trivia that will entertain and amaze!
To enjoy the companion lecture to this one regarding 20th Century ID events, please watch this presentation:
Dr. Oehler reviews infections of the diabetic foot. He begins by introducing the concept of a multidisciplinary team as essential to the management of these patients. He then describes the current epidemiology of diabetes and diabetic foot ulcers. He also discusses Charcot arthropathy and how it occurs . Annual diabetic foot exams are also crucial to these patients, and Dr. Oehler also reviews proper techniques and what to ask/examine. He also covers diabetic peripheral vascular disease, diagnostic imaging modalities, wound management, and the proper empiric antibiotic regimens and durations of therapy. Lastly, he discusses prevention techniques necessary to avoid recurrent ulceration.