Dr. Olga Klinkova, Infectious Diseases Practitioner at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute in Tampa, FL, reviews the basics of Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT) from an Infectious Diseases perspective. She begins by reviewing the indications for SCT, and then discusses the basic types of SCT based upon donor/recipient characteristics (matched related, matched unrelated, etc.) She then differentiated the timelines between autologous and allogeneic transplants. Next, she discusses Graft versus Host disease and its consequences to the SCT patient. Dr. Klinkova then closes by covering prophylaxis strategies for stem cell transplant recipients. From a lecture recorded in October 2021.
Dr. Margarita Cancio, founder and Medical Director of the Infectious Diseases Associates of Tampa Bay, presents this talk on the infectious diseases management of transplant patients both before and after transplantation occurs. She begins by discussing the importance of a thorough pre-transplant evaluation, including a full history with regard to employment, travel, immunizations and other background history. She describes the laboratory evaluation of these patients, including specific screening studies. Next, infectious diseases history of the transplant donor is covered, as prior exposures to various infectious pathogens can affect the transplant recipient in many significant ways. Dr. Cancio then covers significant issues post transplantation, including the reactivation of certain infections such as the herpesviruses, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and strongyloides infection. She then reviews the timing of certain infections after transplantation, with the highest risk period being directly after transplantation occurs. Lastly, infectious complications associated with specific immunosuppressove regimens and pre-transplant immunizations are reviewed.
Dr John Toney, Professor of Medicine and the Morsani College of Medicine and Chief of Epidemiology at the James A Haley Veterans Hospital shares new recommendations in the management of STDs and STIs. He begins by discussing recent epidemiologic trends in STDs in the US, including the increasing trend in new reported cases over the last 5 years. he then focuses on causes of urethritis/cervicitis, including Gonorrhea and Chlamydia. The updated treatment recommendations for GC and Chlamydia are also discussed. Next, Dr. Toney discusses Syphilis. He explains the rationale behind Treponemal and Non-treponemal tests and how they are used to diagnose the stage of syphilis that is present. Treatment options for early and late syphilis are also explored. Lastly, Dr. Toney discusses Herpes genitalis and Trichomoniasis.
Dr. Cannella, Assistant Professor at the University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, presents an introductory lecture on immune system function. He begins by discussing the first line body defenses such as the skin, mucous membranes, and lymphatic system. He then differentiates the innate versus the adaptive immune system. He then discusses other components of the immune system, including the complement pathway, antimicrobial peptides, PAMPS, DAMPS, phagocytosis, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and NK (Natural Killer) cells. A second lecture is planned for later in the fall of 2021.
Dr. Sherbuk compares and contrasts the advantages and disadvantages of of intravenous versus oral antibiotic therapy regimens in the treatment of infections of bone and the heart in this new podcast. She begins by reviewing the history of osteomyelitis treatment, noting that IV therapy really predominated until the late 1980’s, then the first clinical studies of oral antibiotic therapy for osteo began. Dr. Sherbuk then focuses on the OVIVA trial. She concludes that although multiple RCTs demonstrate noninferiority, further research is needed on this treatment modality. The speaker next reviews PO Step-down therapy for endocarditis, including the POET trial. She concludes that PO step down therapy is an option for certain endocarditis patients, though several issues remain unclear including the length of the IV antibiotic lead-in, the preferred oral regimen, and the frequency of monitoring.
Dr. Richard L. Oehler, Professor of Medicine at the University of South Florida Division of Infectious Diseases, presents a talk on the leading single infectious diseases killer of mankind. From its origins at the dawn of humanity throughout Greek, Roman, Middle Age, and contemporary history, Malaria has been a constant threat to civilization and continues to profoundly affect communities in the developing world. Dr. Oehler begins by discussing Malaria’s presence in modern literature, and the well known historical figures that have battled it. Next, he mentions how malaria has been in factor in US millitary history, from the Civil War to the great wars of the 20th century and even to the building of the Panama Canal. The epidemiology of malaria in the 21st century is then discussed, including the heavy burden of the world’s malaria cases currently occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa. The malaria life cycle is reviewed, and the specifics of transmission (including the role of the anopheles mosquito) are conveyed. Next, Dr. Oehler shares information on the clinical manifestations of Malaria, including the distinction between complicated and uncomplicated disease. Other topics mentioned in his lecture include Malaria host genetics, Malaria therapeutic recommendations, Malaria in travelers, Malaria prevention (including chemoprophylaxis), and vaccines.
Dr. Contreras, Infectious Diseases fellow at the University of South Florida, discusses a review of Clostridium difficile disease, a major healthcare-associated disorder. He begins by discussing the history of this potentially devastating disease. He then reviews basic epidemiology trends over the last several decades. Next, he reviews C. difficile risk factors. Following this, Dr. Contreras shares the latest recommendations from the recently published new C. difficile IDSA guidelines, including recent changes to the initial treatment of first outbreaks of the disease. Lastly, Dr. Contreras discusses management options for recurrent C difficile, including fecal transplantation, Bezlotoximab, and other potential future therapies.
Dr. Sabunwala, Infectious Diseases fellow at the University of South Florida discusses how antimicrobial stewardship has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. He begins by discussing a brief historical review of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. He then relates the ways that COVID-19 has impacted clinical care through the development of secondary infections and the perceived need for empiric antibiotics in COVID patients. Dr. Sabunwala then takes a deep dive into antimicrobial usage in COVID-19 patients, looking at the issue from different perspectives. Next, the effect of COVID-19 on the antimicrobial supply chain is explored. Dr. Sabunwala then shares recent publications on the profound effects of COVID on antimicrobial stewardship. The speaker concludes by looking at mitigation strategies for combating excessive antimicrobial usage during the pandemic.