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Chikungunya and the Tropical Americas

By Lysenia Mojica, MD

May 11th, 2015

Dr. Lysenia Mojica reviews mosquito-borne chikungunya in the Americas. Main symptoms include fever greater than 39C, severe bilateral polyarthralgias, and maculopapular rash, among several others. She also reviews atypical presentations, clinical course, sequellae (persistent arthralgias), diagnostics, differential diagnosis, work-up, and treatment. She also touches on the importance of ruling out dengue fever in the workup and treatment of chikungunya. Finally, she touches on prevention techniques to contain the spread of the virus and discusses recent cases of chikungunya in the Americas.Guest

Sepsis and Case scenarios

By Aliyah Baluch, MD, Msc

May 11th, 2015

Dr. Aliyah Baluch reviews the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, current updates on sepsis, and some cases of sepsis. Dr. Baluch goes over SIRS, sepsis, and shock criteria, epidemiology, etiology/pathophysiology, diagnosis, work-up, and both empiric and definitive treatments. She touches on toxin etiologies, risk factors for severe sepsis, including immunosuppression. Sepsis can present in various ways – ARDS, Sick Euthyroid, Delirium, Ileus, and DIC, among other systemic disorders and Dr. Baluch discusses the importance of treating the potentially fatal condition. She addresses goals of therapy by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign and the effects of the campaign.

Preventing Infectious Complications Among Hematopoietic Stem Cell TransPlant Patients

By Minh Ho, DO

May 6th, 2015

Dr. Mihn Ho speaks about the prevention of infection in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. He reviews the process of transplantation, sources of infection, different phases of opportunistic infections, and the indications for prophylaxis post-transplantation. He touches on the history of BMT, starting with the 1940s to modern outcomes. He then addresses infectious disease concerns regarding these patients: pre-transplant infection screening, opportunistic infections, and infection prevention.

Finding a Cure for HIV: Reservoir Eradication

By Joseph Paruolo, DO

May 6th, 2015

Dr. Joseph Paruolo discusses the HIV reservoir, patients thought to be cured, and continuing efforts to cure HIV. Reservoirs include immunological cells, the brain, retinal cells, myocytes, adipose, kidneys, GI tract, epithelium, testes – which can be difficult for ART to penetrate. He discusses measuring the reservoir and viral load in an effort to detect cure rate. To date, only one person, Timothy Brown, has been confirmed to be cured, while several others thought to be cured but who had very low viral loads due to viral reservoirs.

The History of Antibiotics: Past, Present and Future

By Yanina Pasikhova, Pharm.D.

May 6th, 2015

Yanina Pasikhova, PharmD, discusses the history of antimicrobial drugs and the future implications in the setting of increased antimicrobial resistance. Infectious diseases were the leading cause of death in the pre-antibiotic era – including pneumonia, TB, enteritis, and wound infections. She discusses the advent of penicillin and sulfa-antibiotics, among 14 unique classes of antibiotics during the golden age of antimicrobials. She also discusses the development of resistance early in the golden age, and increased resistance today. She tracks the etiology of resistance including antibiotic overuse and use in animal feed. She also discusses several patients who succumbed to resistant infections. Recently approved antimicrobials and their indications are also presented.

Infectious Diseases Issues Pre and Post Solid Organ Transplantation

By Rachel F. Irby, MD

March 16th, 2015

Dr. Rachel Irby speaks about infectious disease issues in heart, liver, and kidney transplants. She emphasizes the importance of patient history, including birth, travel, vaccines, employment, and surgical history. She also speaks about infection serologies and how to treat pre-existing infections, infectious contraindications for transplant, and vaccinations.

Mosquito-Borne Infections

By Suganya Manivannan, MD

February 9th, 2015

Dr. Suganya Mannivannan speaks about mosquito-borne infections, including malaria, dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Filariasis, and Encephalitis viruses. She speaks about the lifespan of malarial parasites and transmission vectors, symptoms, protective factors, and treatment. She touches on current Phase I trials for malaria vaccines. She continues on to review epidemiology, vectors, symptoms, diagnostics, and management for each infection. Mosquito attributes, including life cycles, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, as well as preventative techniques.

Infectious Endocarditis: Beyond the Guidelines

By Kaley Tash, MD

February 6th, 2015

Dr. Kaley Tash speaks about the diagnostic considerations, complications, and prevention of infectious endocarditis and its complications. Echocardiogram is the mainstay of diagnosis, as diagnosis from skin and conjunctival manifestations are rare in the modern age. She touches on etiological pathogens, laboratory findings, She speaks about complications: valve perforations, abscesses, cardiac effusion, infarctions, renal abscesses and renal failure, and septic emboli to the lungs. Complications can also occur in the CNS and peripheral vascular system. IV drug users and elderly patients have the highest risk of complications and are the most difficult to treat. She touches on different options for treating these high-risk groups, including sealed PICC lines and surgical treatment.

CMV in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

By Cynthia Mayer, D.O., FACOI

December 30th, 2014

Dr. Cynthia Mayer speaks about the management of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. About 50% of the US population has been exposed to CMV by the time they are young adults, and it is the most common viral infection affecting solid organ transplant recipients. Dr. Mayer discusses the differences between CMV infection and CMV disease, and the importance of distinguishing the two when assessing end-organ damage. She speaks about mechanism of infection, risk assessment for donors and recipients, diagnosis, management, and prophylaxis. She also touches on the management of Ganciclovir resistant CMV.

Global Epidemiology of Childhood Infectious Diseases

By Lynette Menezes, PhD

December 29th, 2014

Dr. Lynette Menezes speaks about the childhood infectious diseases that produce the highest global burden of disease (years of life lost due to premature death or disability). Infectious diseases cause about 40% of deaths in children under 5 years of age, many in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, the estimated global disease burden due to infectious diseases was 610 million disability adjusted life years. She focuses specifically on acute respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, measles, malaria, and HIV. She also discusses strategies for disease control, including handwashing and vaccination.